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What is abdominal aortic aneurysm and how it is treated, explained by the best cardiologist in Delhi Dr. Gaurav Minocha
.Reduced blood flow to heart muscles causes chest pain called as angina pectoris. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. A person may feel pain when insufficient oxygen-rich blood reaches the heart muscle. This reduced blood flow is caused by coronary artery disease. In coronary artery disease, there is an accumulation of plaque inside the coronary blood vessels. The pain associated with angina is typically described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest. A common presentation as told by most patients is the feeling that 'someone is standing on their chest'. The usual site of pain in angina is chest, but may also be felt in the shoulders, arms, neck, throat, jaw, or back.
The human heart beats at a particular rate and with a particular rhythm. When there is a problem in either the rate or rhythm of the heart beat or when both are disturbed, the condition is called arrhythmia. So an arrhythmia could be due to heart beating too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia) or with an irregular rhythm (for example extra or premature beats).
While some arrhythmias could be harmless, arrhythmias could turn serious if they affect the pumping action of the heart. To understand arrhythmia better, you need to understand how the heart works
Blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body are called arteries. Arteries that are not diseased are flexible and elastic. With increasing age and due to other factors, too much pressure in your arteries can make the walls thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Hardening of arteries ensues which is called as arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Buildup of fats and cholesterol in and on walls of arteries (plaques) is called as atherosclerosis. This process can restrict blood flow.
Any disease of the heart muscle that interferes with the heart's ability to pump blood with sufficient force is called cardiomyopathy.
Coronary arteries are the major blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen and nutrients. Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when these arteries become damaged or diseased. The cause mainly is cholesterol-containing deposits (plaque) on your arteries. Narrowing of the arteries occur when plaques build up, causing your heart to receive less blood. The decreased blood flow, eventually, may cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or other coronary artery disease signs and symptoms. Heart attack occurs when there is a complete blockage.
Heart Failure is a serious condition in which your heart fails to pump blood sufficient enough to meet your body's oxygen needs. It is also called as congestive cardiac failure, right side heart failure, left side heart failure or cor pulmonale. Heart Failure occurs when the heart cannot relax properly to fill in enough blood (right sided heart failure) or cannot contract properly to pump out enough oxygen rich blood (left sided heart failure) or due to a combination of both problems (congestive heart failure).
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting populations across the world. Blood pressure actually indicates the force of blood pushing against artery walls as it flows through the arteries or blood vessels in the human body. Blood vessels get filled by blood up to a certain capacity. Too much pressure of blood on the vessel wall, or high blood pressure, can threaten healthy arteries and lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is hazardous due to its propensity to cause strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, or kidney disease. Everybody should be aware about his/her blood pressure.
Heart attack, technically known as myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), occurs due to diminution of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing that particular heart cells to die.
When leg arteries become narrowed or blocked by plaque it causes peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), a condition that raises the risk of heart attack, stroke, leg amputation and death. As patients are unaware of this condition generally, PAD remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. In PAD, characteristically, there is a reduction in blood flow to the lower extremities due to plaque build-up in the leg arteries (also known as atherosclerosis). A combination of fats, cholesterol and other substances constitutes plaque. Size of plaque can grow to significantly reduce blood flow through an artery.
About 30% of deaths from heart disease are directly related to cigarette smoking. Smoking is a major cause of atherosclerosis.
Among other things, the nicotine in smoke causes:
There are some risk factors that you can't do anything about. These include:
Other risk factors can be controlled. These include:
By improving your habits, you can cut your risk of heart attack or angina.
You can do several things to cut your chances of heart disease. If your arteries are already clogged, you can slow the damage with a healthier diet, exercise, quitting smoking, and reducing stress. With lifestyle changes, you can stop or even reverse the narrowing of arteries. While this is important for those with risk factors for the disease, it is even more important if you have had a heart attack or procedure to restore blood flow to your heart or other areas of your body.
Eating right is a powerful way to reduce or even eliminate some heart disease risk factors. A heart-healthy diet can help cut total and LDL ("bad") cholesterol, lower blood pressure, lower blood sugar, and help you shed pounds.
Try these tips:
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in women over 40 years old, especially after menopause. Once a woman reaches the age of 50 (about the age of natural menopause), the risk for heart disease increases dramatically. In young women who have undergone early or surgical menopause, the risk for heart disease is also higher, especially when combined with other risk factors such as:
Associate Consultant Cardiology Max Hospital Vaishali
Director and Unit Head Cardiology, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vaishali.